Click here to access the article "Evolved to Run".
1. Who are the two separate species that this article is written about and what “age” did they live in?
2. Which type of ancient species was thought to have short bones in the backs of their heels? What tendon did these short heels stretch really tight?
3. What do tendons connect?
4. What does the Achilles tendon link? What is special about the Achilles tendon?
5. What does a “tight” tendon help with?
6. Why do marathon runners thank their heels (usually)?
7. Neanderthals, a separate species from Homo sapiens, were around during the Stone Age too, but are now extinct. They had different heels though. What made their heels different and how did that help them in other ways?
8. What other factors about a Neanderthal’s body made it difficult from them to excel at long distance running?
9. A study was done where eight trained runners ran as the amount of oxygen they used was measured. Oxygen use reveals how much energy the runners needed to keep up the pace. What did scientists compare this “energy use” measurement to using an MRI?
10. This information was compared to measurements from the fossilized heel bones of 13 ancient Homo sapiens and six Neanderthals living 30,000 and 100,000 years ago. What did scientists find out about Neanderthals?
11. Why do scientists suspect that ancient people evolved (changed over time) to run farther than Neanderthals?